What Is SOH And SOC In Battery

State Of Health (SOH) and State Of Charge (SOC), both play a big role in determining the charge level and overall health of a battery. This is true for any type of battery technology.

Typically, a Battery Management System monitors and controls these parameters and gives us crucial insights into the capacity and charge level of a battery. A BMS is responsible for improving SOH and SOC. Let’s learn more about What Is SOH And SOC In Battery here in this article.

What Is SOH In Battery?

SOH means the State Of Health of a battery. It tells us how healthy the battery is. It’s the BMS that tells us about the SOH and controls different parameters to improve SOH.

SOH degrades over time. When the SOH degrades, the battery can not hold the same amount of charge that it could hold before. SOH also indicates how long the battery might last and when it is time for replacement.

The number of charge and discharge cycles affects the SOH of a battery. It is also affected by the temperature and the charging pattern. For example, if you charge the battery to 100% all the time, the SOH might fall drastically within a short period. The same is true if you allow the battery to below 10% charge all the time.

Various environmental factors like temperature and humidity also play a big role in determining the State Of Health (SOH) of a battery.

What Is SOC In Battery?

SOC means State Of Charge. It is the percentage of charge at a given point in time. When you connect a charger to charge the battery it shows the charging percentage which is called State Of Charge (SOC).

SOC increases with higher battery voltage and it declines as the battery drains. The SOH or more simply put, the battery life, decreases as the number of charge and discharge cycles rises.

Role Of Battery Management System In SOH And SOC

The Battery Management System plays a big role in monitoring and controlling the parameters to improve the SOH and SOC of a battery. Here is a summary of some of the activities that BMS does.

What Is SOH And SOC In Battery

Monitor Parameters For SOH And SOC

BMS constantly monitors the battery temperature, voltage, and the current flowing in and out of the battery. That way it can control the parameters that might affect the battery SOH if it is operating beyond the safe limits.

Ensure Safe Operation

BMS ensures the safety of the battery. It controls the battery voltage, temperature, current, and other parameters that are to be controlled for safe operation. It protects the battery from overheating and overcharging. Both are dangerous for the overall safety of the battery.

BMS ensures that the battery is not operating beyond its safe limits. For example, if the battery is overheating, it does not allow you to start the vehicle. That way it is protecting the battery and the vehicle.

Sometimes when we charge the battery, we forget to plug it off. Battery Management Systems automatically cuts off the power when the battery is fully charged. That way it is protected from overcharging.

Usage Optimization And Battery Life Improvement

A BMS can optimize the way you use the battery. It won’t allow you to use the battery if it is not within its safety limits. All these things that it does ultimately improve the overall battery health. A battery with good SOH will last long.

Rajib Is The Founder And The Key Brain Behind RiansDeal. A NIT 2004 Graduate In Mechanical Engineering With Close To Two Decades Of Experience In Designing Large Appliances And Consumer Electronics Products.


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